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Project Partners:

University of South Carolina

Earth Sciences and Resources Institute


School of the Earth, Ocean and Environment

USDepartment of Energy

Illinois State Geological Survey  Logo

South Carolina Department of Natural Resources, Geological Survey

Bay Geophysical

Weatherford Laboritories

Project Principals:

Project Coordinator | Michael G. Waddell
Research Associate Professor,
Earth Sciences and Resources Institute,
University of South Carolina
1233 Washington St., Suite 300, Columbia, SC 29208
Co-Principal Investigator | Dr. James H. Knapp
Professor of Geology and Geophysics,
Tectonics and Geophysics Lab,
Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences,
University of South Carolina,
701 Sumter Street, Suite 617
Columbia, SC 29208
Co-Principal Investigator | Dr. Camelia Knapp
Associate Professor of Geophysics,
Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences
University of South Carolina
701 Sumter Street, Suite 617
Colombia, SC 29208
Chief Scientific Investigator | Dr. Charles W. Clendenin, Jr.
State Geologist,
SC Department of Natural Resources, Geological Survey
5 Geology Road, Columbia, SC 29212



U.S. Department of Energy,
Geologic Sequestration

US Dept. of Energy, Interactive CO2 Animation

Carbon dioxide sequestration in geologic formations includes oil and gas reservoirs, unmineable coal seams, and deep saline reservoirs. These are structures that have stored crude oil, natural gas, brine and CO2 over millions of years. Many power plants and other large emitters of CO2 are located near geologic formations that are amenable to CO2 storage. Further, in many cases, injection of CO2 into a geologic formation can enhance the recovery of hydrocarbons, providing value-added byproducts that can offset the cost of CO2 capture and sequestration.

The primary goal of the Energy Department's sequestration research is to understand the behavior of CO2 when stored in geologic formations. For example, studies are being done to determine the extent to which the CO2 moves within the geologic formation, and what physical and chemical changes occur to the formation when CO2 is injected. This information is key to ensure that sequestration will not impair the geologic integrity of an underground formation and that CO2 storage is secure and environmentally acceptable.