Size and Shape:
Very large 50-80
µm long. The epicone is rounded and the hypocone has 2
tiny red plastids distributed throughout the cell.
features: The brownish
red color and the pair of lobes at the posterior end.
Worldwide in brackish
and marine coastal waters.
been implicated in some
fish kills, but is not believed to be toxic. Mechanism of action
appears to be physical congestion of gills during very dense bloom
A.J., Schmidt, L.B.,
Mason, L.J., Kempton, J.W., Wilde, S.B., Wolny, J.L., Williams, B.J.,
K.C., Hymel, S.N., Keppler, C.J., and Ringwood, A.H. (2003) Harmful
blooms in South Carolina residential and golf course ponds. Population
and Environment. 24: 387-413.
Daugbjerg, N., Hansen, G., Larsen, J., and
Moestrup, O. (2000)
Phylogeny of some of the major genera of Dinoflagellates based on
and partial LSU rDNA sequence data, including the erection of three new
genera of unarmored dinoflagellates. Phycologia 39:
Hulbert, E.M. (1957) The taxonomy of unarmoured
Dinoiphyceae of shallow
embayments on Cape Cod. Biol. Bull. 112: 196-219.