Size and Shape:
Cells are 20-30
µm long X 15-17 µm wide, generally oval in shape with
2 flagella, inserted apically. The trailing (recurrent) flagellum
is slightly longer than the cell.
Pigments: Many discoid
golden-brown or yellow-brown plastids are packed into the cell.
include ChlA, ChlC1, C2, and fucoxanthin.
features: The plastids
can be packed so tightly into the cell that they appear to be a single
reticulated plastid. Large, rod-shaped mucocysts are packed into
the posterior of the cell.
Worldwide in coastal
brackish and marine waters.
produces a toxin
known as fibrocapsin, responsible for massive fish kills in mariculture
facilities in japan. Has bloomed in coastal waters of the
in the US.
A.J., Schmidt, L.B.,
Mason, L.J., Kempton, J.W., Wilde, S.B., Wolny, J.L., Williams, B.J.,
K.C., Hymel, S.N., Keppler, C.J., and Ringwood, A.H. (2003) Harmful
blooms in South Carolina residential and golf course ponds. Population
and Environment. 24: 387-413.
P.E. and L. Maranda.
2002. Potentially toxic or harmful microalgae
Northeastern Naturalist 9(1):81-120.
S., Arakawa, O., and
Onoue, Y. (1996) Growth characteristics of a neurotoxin-producing
japonica (Raphidophyceae). J. World Aquaculture Society