Size and Shape:
cells 11-25 X 8-13 µm. 2 sub-apically inserted flagella,
motile one trailing.
Pigments: Many greenish-brown
or yellow-brown plastids, chla, c1 and c2; ß-carotene and
as accessory pigments.
are truely parietal, cell is only slightly compressed, recurrent
lies in a ventral groove.
Worldwide in brackish
waters. Cused a large bloom in Bull's Bay SC in April of 2003.
to fish, mechanism
of toxicity is very porrly known.
A.J., Schmidt, L.B.,
Mason, L.J., Kempton, J.W., Wilde, S.B., Wolny, J.L., Williams, B.J.,
K.C., Hymel, S.N., Keppler, C.J., and Ringwood, A.H. (2003) Harmful
blooms in South Carolina residential and golf course ponds. Population
and Environment. 24: 387-413.
L. and M. Jacobs
1997. Anatomy of a Bloom: Heterosigma akashiwo in Puget Sound 1997. http://www.nwfsc.noaa.gov/hab/anatomy.htm
and Maranda 2002.
Potentially toxic or harmful microalgae from the northeast coast. Northeastern
Naturalist. 9(1): 81-120.
Y. and T.D. Smayda. 2000.
Heterosigma akashiwo (Raphidophyceae): On prediction of the week of
initiation and maximum during the initial pulse of its bimodal bloom
in Narragansett Bay. Plankton Biol. Ecol. 47:80-84.