Size and Shape:
Small (<20 µm
long), oval shaped dinoflagellate. Can be confused with Pfiesteria.
discoid plastids, number and size vary depending on nutritive mode as
species is mixotrophic.
features: Looks very
muck like Pfiesteria, but it will have chloroplasts in both
of the cell (not just the epitheca as in Pfiesteria).
turn the water a brownish-red causing what is known as a "mahogany
Usually as part of
the phytoplankton in estuarine systems, has been found on both coasts
the US, the gulf of Mexico, and Scandanavia.
been known to cause
fish kills in S.C. retention ponds and Florida mariculture tanks.
Apparently not highly toxic.
A.J., Deeds, J.R., Law, M.H., and Place, A.R. (2002) Toxicity of Karlodinium
micrum (Dinophyceae) associated with a fish kill in a South
brackish retention pond. Harmful Algae 2.
A.J., Schmidt, L.B.,
Mason, L.J., Kempton, J.W., Wilde, S.B., Wolny, J.L., Williams, B.J.,
K.C., Hymel, S.N., Keppler, C.J., and Ringwood, A.H. (2003) Harmful
blooms in South Carolina residential and golf course ponds. Population
and Environment. 24: 387-413.
A.J., and Holland,
A.F. (2003) Initial results from a multi-institutional collaboration to
monitor harmful algal blooms in South Carolina. Environmental
and Assessment. 81: 361-371.
and Moestrup, 2000. Phylogeny of some of the major genera of
based on ultrastructure and partial LSU rDNA sequence data.
T. 1957. A Red Water
Organism From Walvis Bay. Galathea Reports 1:137-138.