Size and Shape:
Very small cells
(~10 µm long X 5 µm wide), generally oval in shape
2 equal apically inserted flagella and a short, but noticable haptonema.
Pigments: P. parvum
has 2 cup-shaped golden-brown plastids running the length of each side
of the cell. Pigments include chla and chlc.
features: P. parvum
is the notorious "golden tide" alga that has caused fish kills in
brackish and fresh water systems in many parts of the world. It
recognizable by its small size, golden color, and the short haptonema
from between the flagella.
Worldwide in coastal
brackish and inland fresh waters.
to fish, no toxic
effects on mammals have been reported.
A.J., Schmidt, L.B.,
Mason, L.J., Kempton, J.W., Wilde, S.B., Wolny, J.L., Williams, B.J.,
K.C., Hymel, S.N., Keppler, C.J., and Ringwood, A.H. (2003) Harmful
blooms in South Carolina residential and golf course ponds. Population
and Environment. 24: 387-413.
N. and Granéli,
E. 1999. Influence of different nutrient conditions on cell density,
composition and toxicity of Prymnesium parvum (Haptophyta) in
cultures. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 239: 243-258.
U. (2003) Kill and
eat your predator: a winning strategy of the planktonic flagellate
parvum. Aquatic Microbial Ecology. 32: 73-84