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South Carolina Department
of Natural Resources

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Archaeological excavation at Botany Bay Plantation Heritage Preserve open to public

April 8, 2019

The public is invited to join the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) Archaeology team as they conduct excavations at Pockoy Island, located on Botany Bay Plantation Heritage Preserve. Archaeological excavation will take place from Monday, May 6, 2019 through Friday, May 24, 2019.

The site will be open to the public throughout the season from 10 a.m. until 3 p.m. on Monday and Wednesday through Saturday each week. The site is closed to the public on Sunday and Tuesday.

Guided public tours of the site are offered at 10 a.m., 1 p.m., and 2 p.m. The public can preregister for tours here.

The public can also volunteer to help sift for artifacts throughout the field season. Preregistration for volunteers is available at this link.

To read an article about the 2018 field season at Pockoy Isand, visit South Carolina Wildlife.

Directions to the preserve can be found on the Botany Bay Plantation Heritage Preserve website.

Groups of 15 or more who wish to visit the site may contact SCDNR archaeologist Meg Gaillard at (803) 528-1455 or by email at

An aerial view of Botany Bay Plantation Heritage Preserve shows tents set up where Pockoy Island Shell Rings are located (Credit Jamie Koelker, Koelker & Associates, LLC.)

An aerial view of Botany Bay Plantation Heritage Preserve shows tents set up where Pockoy Island Shell Rings are located (Credit Jamie Koelker, Koelker & Associates, LLC.)

About Pockoy Island Shell Rings:

Pockoy Island Shell Rings (Pockoy 1 and Pockoy 2) are the latest archaeological discovery on Botany Bay Plantation Heritage Preserve, a SCDNR managed area on Edisto Island. The rings were found using Lidar in 2017. Pockoy 1 is the oldest known shell ring in South Carolina – dating to the Late Archaic period, approximately 4,300 years ago. That’s the same time period as the construction of the first Egyptian pyramids!

While the two shell rings are considered one archaeological site, recent excavations have focused on Pockoy 1 since it is experiencing a rapid rate of erosion – about nine meters per year.

Pockoy Island Shell Rings are among thousands of coastal archaeological sites threatened by sea level rise. It is because of this threat that Pockoy is considered an example of Heritage at Risk – a global term used to define cultural resources threatened by natural and human impacts.

For nearly 70 years, Botany Bay Plantation has experienced one of the highest rates of erosion in coastal South Carolina. The shoreline has moved as much as three quarters of a mile inland in some locations.

Within the Southeastern United State, more than 19,000 recorded archaeological sites will be submerged by the end of the century with a one-meter rise in sea level. Unfortunately, Pockoy 1 will be gone by 2024. Rapid archaeological investigation of this site is critical as our shared cultural heritage is at risk of being lost.

Pockoy 1 is one of the most intensely investigated shell rings in the world. Excavations of Pockoy 1 began in July 2017 with shovel testing and probing of the site. Shovel test pits (STPs) were excavated by hand every 30 meters across the site, and each STP was 30 centimeters in diameter and one meter deep. These STPs helped SCDNR archaeologists determine where larger excavation units and trenches should be located for future field seasons.

Probing through the shell used to construct Pockoy 1 over 4,000 years ago helped SCDNR archaeologists determine the thickness and diameter of the shell ring. Pockoy 1 is in the shape of a donut, and measures about 60 meters across and 60 centimeters at its thickest point. The center of this donut-shape is void of shell and is called the plaza. Excavations in May 2018 focused on the west side of the shell ring into the plaza, while excavations in December 2018 focused on the plaza itself. During the May 2019 field season, SCDNR archaeologists will expand their excavations of the plaza. In addition to volunteers, SCDNR archaeologists will be joined by other teams of archaeologists who will assist in laying the groundwork for future archaeological investigations of the island. Mississippi State University archaeology staff and students will conduct a STP survey of Pockoy Island in order to determine artifact patterns across the island. Archaeologists from the National Park Service Southeastern Archaeological Center will also join the team to conduct probing of Pockoy 2 to determine the shell ring’s diameter and thickness.

Information carefully collected from Pockoy 1 by SCDNR archaeologists include artifacts, faunal remains, flotation samples for ethnobotanical analysis, pollen samples, radiocarbon (C-14) dating samples, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating samples, and photographs for 3D animation of the excavation units.

Dates from some of these samples suggest that Pockoy 1 was constructed and occupied over a relatively short period of time, within 20 – 100 years. But there are so many more question to answer including – Why were the Pockoy Island Shell Rings constructed? Are they connected to a larger network of shell ring communities across the Southeastern United States? Were they created for a ceremonial purpose, or the result of subsistence activities? Time is running out to gather information to answer these and many other questions that can help archaeologists add to our shared cultural heritage and collective human history.